Hutsul text in Ukrainian prose in the late 19th – early 20th centuries
The thesis is dedicated to the complex investigation of Hutsul text in Ukrainian prose in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. The specific image of Hutsul topos in the works by I. Franko, O. Kobylianska, M. Kotsyubynskyi, M. Cheremshyna and G. Khotkevych is analyzed. For the first time the theoretical definition of «Hutsul text» as a supertext structure is formed. Special attention is given to the criteria by which one is able to determine this superstructure in this text. The basic motives and artistic codes, providing structural and semantic unity of the concept, are revealed.
«Hutsul text» is it the text about genius loci – the essence of Hutsul land, its uniqueness is manifested in the historical, customary, social, landscape, religious and mythological features. All its motives and codes are analyzed in several problem-thematic areas: good and evil, Eros and Thanatos, mystical discourse.
In the analysis of dichotomous pair of «good-evil» attention was paid to natural evil that embody primary elements (floods and storms). It is noted that the nature appears to be evil because of evaluative (ethical) man’s relation to the world (everything that threatens human existence is marked as evil). On the other hand, nature as an example of world order is introdused. On the other hand, nature as an example of world order is introdused. The paper provides insight into anthropological axiology of «Hutsul text»; it is revealed through external / internal conflicts and personal dramas of the characters. It is concluded that the concept of Good in the works on the outlaw subject is based on the values of freedom whilst evil associated with social injustice and despotic power. Attention is paid to the anti militaristic works by Marko Cheremshyna – war is interpreted as a social evil and a source of chaos. Franko instead raised a theosophic questions, gave to concept of good versatility features and justified the secondary of evil.
The concept of Eros and Thanatos in «Hutsul text» explained through unique, uninhibited views on love life, through world-view fusion of mythology and Christian religion, rendition ritual-magical time. A special emphasis is put on two-faced Eros that manifests itself through bodily love (passionate physiological) and spiritual attraction close to the ideal of aesthetic feeling. Eros appears as a game, as power, as the fatal beginning of that in some literary texts provoke a major conflict and a fatal outcome. Thanatological searches are realized through the development of mythopoetics space – chthonic forest (where there is contact with demonic creatures), personal «space road to death» and anti-war motives.
Subject matter related to the mystical discourse is also considered. Mystic of «Hutsul text» conditionally divided into religious / secular, demonic / natural; it is psychologically motivated, evolved into tragical, loneliness space. The basic mystical characters presented in the form of mythological figures (wood spirits – scheznyk, mavka, chuhaistr), demonic undefined «something», ambivalent drowned person and spirits-demons. For each of them mystical language, expressed through dreams, visions, gestures, symbols and dramatized dialogues are inherent.
It is concluded that speaking about Hutsul’s topos and describing its genius loci, writers shaped the image of the region and formed author’s invariant model of artistic understanding Hutsul space; attached this text to intellectual and artistic extension of our culture and also contributed to the generation of new meanings of this unique Ukrainian region.
Key words: Hutsul text, topos of Hutsulschyna, genius loci, time, space, good / evil, Eros / Thanatos, mystical discourse.